A description and tips on Deck welding using shear studs
SHEAR CONNECTION IN COMPOSITE BEAMS
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Shear Connector Studs are designed to tie the concrete slab to the steel beams and to resist shear loadings between the concrete slab and steel beam in composite construction. This enables us to load up to 1000 kg/m² instead of the usual load which is much less. The procedure saves time and therefore money as well due to its simplicity.
Each weld cycle depends on the diameter of the fastener and the material being joined and takes up to only 1 second. Welding currents range from 240 to 3000 amps. The Shear Stud is made of steel and it is delivered with a ceramic ferrule to ensure a good connection of the Stud with the beam.The shear Studs are available in different lengths and diameters . The length of the Stud will be reduced by approximately 5mm during the welding process. All Shear Studs are supplied with ferrules. The ferrules are made of clay and able to withstand heat shock as well as high temperatures without melting or breaking.
The shear connection of a composite beam comprises five elements that can all influence behaviour. They include the shear stud connectors, profiled steel sheeting(steel deck), slab reinforcement (rebar or steel mesh) , concrete slab and steel beam top flange.
In such design the shear Stud connects the steel deck to the concrete slab.
Shear Stud Connectors are the most important element in Composite Beam design securing the concrete to steel structural components. Shear Stus Connectors resist shear forces and increase shear loading capacity in steel buildings,bridges,
Design of the shear stud connector is very important because
1- it affects the choice of a suitable ultimate strength design method for the composite beam
2-The economics and speed of construction
3-The stability of the steel beam
4-The safety of steel beam against collapsing
The ultimate strength of most composite beams is governed by shear stud connector shear capacity
WELDING SHEAR STUD CONNECTOR INSTALLATION WELDING TIPS
The longitudinal shear connection between the steel section and the concrete is provided by shear connectors, which normally take the form of studs welded to the top of the steel section.
All connectors should be capable of resisting uplift forces caused by the tendency for the slab to separate from the beam as it bends.
In the case of shear studs this is achieved by the head of the stud.
Although shear connectors ensure adequate fixing of the decking to the beam, they are not needed simply to achieve this.
They should only be used when it is desired to achieve composite action between the slab and the steel beam.
1- The Steel deck surface should be cleaned before any welding process starts
2- After the installation of the steel deck the surface should not have any dirt, paint spill overs, oil or water.
3- In case of welding over the steel deck additional welding time and the ampere of the electrical current should be taken into account. Few shears stud should be tested before carrying on with the rest of the welding.
4- Further testing should be carried out in different parts of the surface as well; as the steel construction hardness may be different
5- The welding gun should not be placed on the steel deck at any time as there is risk of short circuit as it touches the steel deck
6- After welding the shear stud loses some of its height they are about 5mm shorter
7- Sufficient concrete cover should be provided over the shear studs
8- Ceramic ferrules left over from the shear studding process can be left distributed over the decking surface and lost within the concrete pour.
7- Additional reinforcement in shallow places of the steel deck should be provided in addition to steel mesh installation.
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